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HIV means Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is the virus that leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV targets and infects the immune system and eventually weakens it, making you more vulnerable to developing other illnesses which can lead to AIDS.
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. HIV and AIDS are not the same thing. You don't have AIDS as soon as you are infected with HIV. HIV attacks the immune system, which means you are less able to fight infection and can develop serious (sometimes deadly) infections; this in turn can lead to developing full-blown AIDS. AIDS in itself does not cause death; it is usually opportunistic infections or other long-term effects of the HIV infection that have caused it.
You can have HIV for many years with no signs of disease, or only mild-to-moderate symptoms. But without treatment, HIV will eventually wear down the immune system and put you at risk of developing more serious Opportunistic Infections.
If you have symptoms you should get yourself tested to avoid infection developing and from transferring it to someone else.